I don't get how it let you send if it was not matured. Your balance would have been lower than the amount. It would have said balance 0.01, right? If I try that it says "you don't have enough money" or "Insufficient funds" from the command line.
How many blocks did it say it had left to mature when you sent?
There's a chance it might still go through.
Have you copied or moved your wallet.dat in any way?